Societies are the most inclusive and complex social organisations in today’s world. Most other organizations exist within the confines of a society. All aspects of human social life are encompassed by a society and a large extent, the way in which a society functions will influence all the patterns of social ordering and cultural ideas that comprise it.

Societies are functionally autonomous in several ways. First most social relationships occur within the boundaries of a society with only a few relationships involving actors from different societies. Second societies attempt to become as self-sufficient as possible by establishing procedures for securing whatever resources they require and satisfying the needs of their members. Third a society is the ultimate decision making unit for its members and exercises sovereignty over all decisions concerning them.


  • According to Maclver, Society is the system of usages and procedures of authority and mutual aid of many groupings and divisions of controls of human behaviour and of liberties.
  • The aggregate of people living together in a more or less orderd community.
  • People in general thought of as living together in organized communities with shared laws, traditions and values.
  • A voluntary association of individuals for common ends especially an organized group working together or periodically meeting because of common interests, beliefs or profession.
  • A natural group of plants usually of a single species or habit with an association.

Meaning of word society is generally taken from a group of people. society is by the web of relationships among the members of society with which people are connected with each other. just by collection of some persons, we cannot make a society. society can be made only when the meaningful relations will be established among the people of society. These relations are abstract in nature. The web of all these social relationships is known as society. We cannot see them because they are abstract in nature. Actually society is the web of social relationship. Humans who live at one place have mutual relations and mutual interests. They are dependent upon each other and they make a society.

Characteristics of society

  1. Society is based on relationships. It means that society is based on social relationships. Because thousands of relationships exist in society. Just in one family more of relations are there in society. Social relations exist in every society and among all humans because human relations are based on mutual consciousness.
  2. Society depends upon likeness and differences. Social relations can be established if there will be some sort of uniformity in them because without this they cannot attract each other and society cannot be formed. Except this differences are also necessary. Eg, society cannot move without the difference of male and female. In this way likeness and difference are necessary for society.
  3. Interdependence. It is necessary for humans to keep relations with other persons because it is not possible for every person to do all of his works. He has to depend upon others. The way in which man grows his dependence upon others also increases and his needs also start to increase.
  4. Society is abstract. That’s why they are abstract. Because relations are abstract, that’s why the society made by relations is also abstract.
  5. Population. Without humans society cannot be made. Population many things are required like availability of enough food protection of population from every type of problem and the continuation of population and society because if the population will not continue then one day will come when everyone will come to an end. In this way without population the existence of society is impossible.
  6. Cooperation are must for society. Cooperation is a necessary element for the formation of society. Humans live in society and they depend upon each other. This interdependence is there only if there will be some cooperation among them.

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