Instrument used for taking measurements

The instrument commonly used for taking surveying measurements may be divided into the following main classes:

  1. The instrument used for ranging and laying out survey line such as ranging rods, line ranger, cross-staff, optical square etc.
  2. Instruments used for direct measurements of length such as chain, tape, steel band etc.
  3. Instruments used for measurement of legngth indirectly such as tacheometric, subtense bar, Electronic Distance Measuring Instruments etc.
  4. Instruments used for determining direction of line such as prismatic compass, box-sextant, theodolite etc.
  5. Instruments used for measuring slopes and heights such as clinometer, level etc.
  6. Instruments used for surveying and plotting simultaneously such as plane table.
  7. Instruments used for surveying by photographic means such as photo-theodolite.

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