Surveying is the art of determining the relative position of object on the surface of the earth by taking measurements in the horizontal and vertical plane.
The part of surveying which deals with the measurement in the vertical plan is known as levelling and the papers on which days measurements are drawn are called suction and elevations.
Surveying and levelling are considered to be two different operations but in the wider sense, the term serveying includes levelling.
Object of Surveying
The main object of surveying is to obtain a map or a plan of the area surveyed. The art of surveying and map making has been practised from the very ancient time.
The the earliest surveys known were performed only for the purpose of establishing the boundary of land, but their application has become increasingly important as the time has progressed.
Now-a-day for the purpose of designing any engineering project such as a road railway, canal, water supply or sanitary scheme etc.
The success of any engineering project is based upon the accurate and complete survey work.